Periodic fads are details patterns the are current in the regular table that highlight different elements of a specific element, consisting of its size and also its electronic properties. Major periodic fads include: electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, atom radius, melt point, and metallic character. Routine trends, emerging from the arrangement of the regular table, provide stayinfiji.comists with an invaluable tool to easily predict an element"s properties. These fads exist due to the fact that of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their particular group households or periods, and because that the regular nature that the elements.

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Electronegativity Trends

Electronegativity have the right to be understood as a stayinfiji.comical residential property describing an atom"s capacity to attract and bind v electrons. Due to the fact that electronegativity is a qualitative property, over there is no standardized method for calculating electronegativity. However, the most common scale for quantifying electronegativity is the Pauling scale (Table A2), named after the stayinfiji.comist Linus Pauling. The numbers assigned by the Pauling range are dimensionless because of the qualitative nature of electronegativity. Electronegativity worths for each facet can be uncovered on details periodic tables. An instance is noted below.

Figure (PageIndex1): periodic Table the Electronegativity values

Electronegativity procedures an atom"s propensity to entice and form bonds v electrons. This building exists due to the digital configuration the atoms. Most atoms monitor the octet dominance (having the valence, or outer, shell comprise of 8 electrons). Because aspects on the left next of the routine table have actually less 보다 a half-full valence shell, the power required to acquire electrons is significantly higher compared v the energy required to shed electrons. Together a result, the elements on the left next of the periodic table usually lose electrons when creating bonds. Conversely, facets on the ideal side the the regular table are much more energy-efficient in obtaining electrons to develop a finish valence covering of 8 electrons. The nature of electronegativity is effectively defined thus: the an ext inclined one atom is to obtain electrons, the an ext likely that atom will certainly pull electrons toward itself.

From left come right throughout a period of elements, electronegativity increases. If the valence shell of one atom is less than fifty percent full, it needs less energy to lose an electron 보다 to gain one. Vice versa, if the valence shell is an ext than fifty percent full, it is simpler to traction an electron into the valence shell than come donate one. From height to bottom down a group, electronegativity decreases. This is due to the fact that atomic number increases down a group, and thus there is an boosted distance between the valence electrons and also nucleus, or a higher atomic radius. As because that the transition metals, back they have electronegativity values, there is little variance among them across the period and up and down a group. This is because their metallic properties affect their capability to entice electrons as quickly as the various other elements.

According to this two basic trends, the most electronegative aspect is fluorine, v 3.98 Pauling units.

api/deki/files/1193/Ionization_Energy_Graph_IK.png?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex3): Graph showing the Ionization power of the facets from Hydrogen come Argon

Another aspect that influence ionization energy is electron shielding. Electron shielding explains the capacity of one atom"s inner electrons to shield its positively-charged nucleus native its valence electrons. When relocating to the right of a period, the number of electrons increases and the stamin of shielding increases. Together a result, it is much easier for valence shell electrons to ionize, and thus the ionization energy decreases under a group. Electron shielding is additionally known together screening.

Some facets have several ionization energies; these differing energies are referred to as the an initial ionization energy, the 2nd ionization energy, 3rd ionization energy, etc. The very first ionization energy is the energy requiredto remove the outermost, or highest, power electron, the 2nd ionization power is the power required come remove any type of subsequent high-energy electron native a gaseous cation, etc. Listed below are the stayinfiji.comistry equations explicate the very first and 2nd ionization energies:

First Ionization Energy:

< X_(g) ightarrow X^+_(g) + e^- >

Second Ionization Energy:

< X^+_(g) ightarrow X^2+_(g) + e^- >

Generally, any subsequent ionization energies (2nd, 3rd, etc.) monitor the same periodic trend together the an initial ionization energy.

Figure (PageIndex4): routine Table showing Ionization power Trend

Ionization energies decrease together atomic radii increase. This observation is influenced by (n) (the primary quantum number) and also (Z_eff) (based top top the atomic number and shows how plenty of protons room seen in the atom) on the ionization energy (I). The partnership is offered by the complying with equation:

< i = dfracR_H Z^2_effn^2 >

across a period, (Z_eff) increases and n (principal quantum number) remains the same, so the ionization power increases. Under a group, (n) increases and (Z_eff) increases slightly; the ionization energy decreases.

Electron Affinity Trends

As the name suggests, electron affinity is the ability of an atom to accept an electron. Unlike electronegativity, electron affinity is a quantitative measure of the energy adjust that occurs once an electron is added to a neutral gas atom. The much more negative the electron affinity value, the higher an atom"s affinity because that electrons.

Figure (PageIndex5): routine Table mirroring Electron Affinity Trend

Electron affinity typically decreases under a team of facets because every atom is larger than the atom above it (this is the atom radius trend, questioned below). This means that an added electron is additional away native the atom"s nucleus contrasted with its position in the smaller sized atom. Through a bigger distance between the negatively-charged electron and the positively-charged nucleus, the pressure of attraction is fairly weaker. Therefore, electron affinity decreases. Moving from left come right throughout a period, atoms come to be smaller together the pressures of attraction come to be stronger. This causes the electron to relocate closer come the nucleus, thus increasing the electron affinity native left come right throughout a period.

Electron affinity boosts from left to right within a period. This is brought about by the to decrease in atom radius. Electron affinity decreases from optimal to bottom within a group. This is caused by the boost in atomic radius.

Atomic Radius Trends

The atom radius is one-half the distance in between the nuclei of 2 atoms (just like a radius is half the diameter of a circle). However, this idea is facility by the reality that no all atom are typically bound together in the very same way. Some space bound by covalent bonds in molecules, some are attracted to each various other in ionic crystals, and also others are organized in metallic crystals. Nevertheless, it is possible for a vast bulk of facets to type covalent molecule in i m sorry two like atoms are held together through a single covalent bond. The covalent radii of this molecules are frequently referred to as atomic radii. This distance is measure in picometers. Atom radius patterns are observed throughout the regular table.

Atomic size slowly decreases from left come right throughout a period of elements. This is because, in ~ a period or family of elements, all electrons are included to the very same shell. However, at the very same time, protons space being included to the nucleus, making it much more positively charged. The effect of increasing proton number is higher than that of the boosting electron number; therefore, over there is a better nuclear attraction. This method that the nucleus attracts the electrons more strongly, pulling the atom"s covering closer to the nucleus. The valence electrons are held closer towards the nucleus of the atom. As a result, the atomic radius decreases.

api/deki/files/1195/Melting_Point_Trend_IK.png?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex7): graph of melt Points of miscellaneous Elements

Metallic personality Trends

The metallic character of an facet can be identified as how readily one atom deserve to lose an electron. From best to left throughout a period, metallic personality increases because the attraction between valence electron and also the cell nucleus is weaker, allowing an less complicated loss of electrons. Metallic character rises as you move down a group since the atomic size is increasing. As soon as the atomic dimension increases, the external shells are farther away. The primary quantum number increases and average electron thickness moves farther native nucleus. The electron of the valence shell have less attraction to the cell core and, as a result, can lose electrons more readily. This causes an increase in metallic character.

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Another easier method to remember the trend of metallic character is that moving left and down towards the bottom-left corner of the periodic table, metallic character rises toward groups 1 and 2, or the alkali and also alkaline earth metal groups. Likewise, relocating up and to the best to the upper-right corner of the regular table, metallic personality decreases since you space passing by to the best side that the staircase, which show the nonmetals. These incorporate the group 8, the noble gases, and also other common gases such together oxygen and nitrogen.

In various other words: relocate left across period and under the group: rise metallic personality (heading towards alkali and also alkaline metals) relocate right across duration and increase the group: decrease metallic personality (heading towards nonmetals choose noble gases)Metallic Character trend IK.pngwhich statement describes the general trends in electronegativity and metallic properties