To explain the relationship between solute concentration and also the physics properties the a solution. To recognize that the total variety of nonvolatile solute particles determines the diminish in vapor pressure, boost in cook point, and also decrease in freezing suggest of a solution versus the pure solvent.

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Many that the physics properties of remedies differ substantially from those of the pure substances discussed in earlier chapters, and also these differences have necessary consequences. For example, the minimal temperature variety of liquid water (0°C–100°C) severely borders its use. Aqueous solutions have actually both a reduced freezing suggest and a higher boiling allude than pure water. Probably one the the most acquainted applications that this phenomenon is the addition of ethylene glycol (“antifreeze”) come the water in an vehicle radiator. This solute lowers the freezing point of the water, preventing the engine from cracked in very cold weather from the growth of pure water ~ above freezing. Antifreeze also allows the cooling device to run at temperatures higher than 100°C without generating sufficient pressure to explode.

Changes in the freezing allude and boiling point of a solution depend mostly on the number of solute particles current rather than the type of particles. Together properties of solutions are called colligative nature (from the Latin colligatus, definition “bound together” as in a quantity). As we will certainly see, the vapor pressure and also osmotic push of solutions are also colligative properties.

When we identify the number of particles in a solution, the is essential to psychic that not all solutions with the same molarity contain the same concentration of solute particles. Consider, because that example, 0.01 M aqueous remedies of sucrose, (NaCl), and also (ceCaCl_2). Because sucrose disappear to provide a solution of neutral molecules, the concentration that solute particles in a 0.01 M sucrose equipment is 0.01 M. In contrast, both (ceNaCl) and also (ceCaCl_2) are ionic compounds the dissociate in water to productivity solvated ions. As a result, a 0.01 M aqueous equipment of (ceNaCl) has 0.01 M Na+ ions and also 0.01 M (Cl^−) ions, for a complete particle concentration that 0.02 M. Similarly, the (ceCaCl_2) solution has 0.01 M (Ca^2+) ions and also 0.02 M (Cl^−) ions, for a full particle concentration the 0.03 M.These values space correct for dilute solutions, whereby the dissociation that the compound to type separately solvated ion is complete. At higher concentrations (typically >1 M), particularly with salts of small, extremely charged ions (such as (Mg^2+) or (Al^3+)), or in options with less polar solvents, dissociation to give separate ions is regularly incomplete. The amount of the concentration of the dissolved solute particles dictates the physical properties that a solution. In the adhering to discussion, us must as such keep the stayinfiji.comical nature that the solute firmly in mind.

Boiling suggest Elevation

Recall the the common boiling suggest of a problem is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals 1 atm. If a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor push of a solvent, it have to also impact the boil point. Since the vapor push of the systems at a provided temperature is less than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, achieving a vapor pressure of 1 atm for the solution requires a higher temperature 보다 the regular boiling suggest of the solvent. Hence the boiling point of a equipment is constantly greater than that that the pure solvent. We have the right to see why this should be true by compare the phase diagram because that an aqueous systems with the step diagram because that pure water (Figure (PageIndex1)). The vapor press of the equipment is much less than the of pure water at every temperatures. Consequently, the liquid–vapor curve because that the systems crosses the horizontal line equivalent to ns = 1 atm at a higher temperature 보다 does the curve for pure water.

Figure (PageIndex1): step Diagrams that Pure Water and an Aqueous solution of a Nonvolatile Solute. The vaporization curve because that the systems lies listed below the curve because that pure water at every temperatures, which results in an increase in the boiling suggest and a decrease in the freezing allude of the solution.

The boiling point of a solution with a nonvolatile solute is always greater than the boiling allude of the pure solvent.

The magnitude of the rise in the boiling point is pertained to the size of the to decrease in the vapor pressure. As we have just discussed, the diminish in the vapor pressure is proportional come the concentration that the solute in the solution. Therefore the magnitude of the rise in the boiling suggest must also be proportional come the concentration the the solute (Figure (PageIndex2)). We can specify the boiling allude elevation ((ΔT_b)) together the difference between the boiling points of the solution and also the pure solvent:

<ΔT_b=T_b−T^0_b labeleq1>

where (T_b) is the boiling suggest of the solution and (T^0_b) is the boiling point of the pure solvent. We deserve to express the relationship between (ΔT_b) and concentration as follows

<ΔT_b = mK_b labeleq2>

where m is the concentration that the solute expressed in molality, and also (K_b) is the molal boiling allude elevation constant of the solvent, which has actually units that °C/m. Table (PageIndex1) perform characteristic Kb values for several typically used solvents.


Video (PageIndex1): Freezing suggest depression is exploited to remove ice from the manage surfaces the aircraft.

Exercise (PageIndex5)

Arrange this aqueous remedies in order of enhancing freezing points: 0.2 m (NaCl), 0.3 m acetic acid, 0.1 m (ceCaCl_2), and 0.2 m sucrose.


0.2 m (ceNaCl) (lowest freeze point)

Determining Molar Mass from Freezing point Depression

A equipment of 4.00 g that a nonelectrolyte dissolved in 55.0 g the benzene is discovered to freeze in ~ 2.32 °C. What is the molar mass of this compound?


We deserve to solve this trouble using the complying with steps.

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Determine the change in freezing allude from the it was observed freezing point and the freezing point of pure benzene (Table (PageIndex1)).

(mathrmMoles: of: solute=dfrac0.62:mol: solute1.00cancelkg: solvent×0.0550cancelkg: solvent=0.035:mol)

Determination that a Molar Mass from Osmotic Pressure

A 0.500 l sample of one aqueous solution containing 10.0 g the hemoglobin has an osmotic push of 5.9 torr in ~ 22 °C. What is the molar massive of hemoglobin?


Here is one collection of measures that have the right to be used to settle the problem:


Convert the osmotic press to atmospheres, then identify the molar concentration native the osmotic pressure.

(mathrmmolar: mass=dfrac10.0:g1.6×10^−4:mol=6.2×10^4:g/mol)