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11.3 The Kidney


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11.3.1 specify excretion

Excretion is the removal indigenous the body of the waste assets of metabolic activities

11.3.2 Draw and also label a chart of the kidney

The person Kidney


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11.3.3 Annotate a chart of a glomerulus and also associated nephron to present the role of every part

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The nephron is the useful unit of the kidney and also includes:

Afferent arteriole:  Brings blood to the nephron to it is in filtered

Efferent arteriole: clears blood from nephron (minus filtered components)

Glomerulus: Capillary tuft wherein filtration occurs

Bowman"s Capsule:  First part of nephron wherein filtrate is collected

Proximal Convoluted Tubule: wherein selective reabsorption occurs

Loop the Henle:  Important for creating a salt gradient in the medulla

Distal Convoluted Tubule: final site that selective reabsorption

Collecting Duct: Feeds right into ureter and also is where osmoregulation occurs

Vasa Recta:  Blood network the reabsorbs contents from the filtrate

11.3.4 explain the process of ultrafiltration, consisting of blood pressure, fenestrated blood capillaries and also basement membrane

Ultrafiltration occurs once hydrostatic pressure pressures blood with a semi-permeable membrane, separating blood cells and large proteins from the remainder the the serumUltrafiltration occurs in between the glomerulus and also the Bowman"s capsule and requires two points to type the filtrate:

Hydrostatic Pressure

The glomerulus rises blood press by creating narrow branches (which additionally increases surface ar area because that filtration)This pressure is preserved by a narrow efferent arteriole (relative come the afferent arteriole), i m sorry restricts the outflow of blood, maintaining pressure highThe net pressure gradient in the glomerulus forces blood into the capsule space

Basement Membrane

The basement membrane is a fine mesh that restricts the passage of blood cells and proteins - it is the sole filtration barrierBlood can exit the glomerulus straight through pores together the capillaries are fenestratedThe filtrate can enter the Bowman"s capsule directly due to the fact that the podocytes that surround the glomerulus contain filtration slits between their pedicelsThe basement membrane lies between the glomerulus and Bowman"s capsule

Ultrafiltration


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11.3.5 specify osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the regulate of the water balance that the blood, organization or cytoplasm that a life organism

11.3.6 define the reabsorption that glucose, water and salts in the proximal convoluted tubule, including the functions of microvilli, osmosis and energetic transport

The proximal convoluted tubule extends from the Bowman"s capsule and is where most selective reabsorption in the nephron occursAll glucose, amino acids, vitamins and also hormones space reabsorbed here, in addition to most (~80%) of the mineral ions and also waterThe proximal convoluted tubule has actually a microvilli cell lining to boost the surface area because that the absorption of materials from the filtrateThere are likewise a large number of mitochondria in these cells, together reabsorption indigenous the filtrate involves energetic transportOnce materials have been activly reabsorbed right into the tubule cells, they can passively diffuse into the bloodstream (along the concentration gradient)Mineral ions and vitamins are actively transported via protein pumps or transport proteinsGlucose is actively transported across the membrane in symport v sodiumWater adheres to the movement of the ions passively (via osmosis)

Selective Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule


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11.3.7 define the roles of the loop that Henle, medulla, collecting duct and ADH (vasopressin) in keeping the water balance of the blood

Creating a Salt Gradient in the Medulla

The duty of the loop that Henle is to create a salt bath concentration in the liquid surrounding the tubuleThe descending body of the loop that Henle is permeable come water, but impermeable come saltsThe ascending body of the loop that Henle is permeable come salts, however impermeable to waterThis way that as the loop descends right into the medulla, the interstitial liquid becomes an ext salty (and less salty together it ascends into the cortex)As the vasa recta blood network the surrounds the loop operation in the contrary direction (counter-current exchange), this further multiplies the effect

Osmoregulation

As the collecting duct passes v the medulla as it drains right into the ureter, the hypertonic solution of the deep medulla will attract water by osmosisAntidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) is a hormone exit from the posterior pituitary in an answer to dehydration (detected by hypothalamus)ADH increases the permeability that the collecting duct come water, allowing an ext water to be reabsorbed by osmosis (via the manufacturing of aquaporins)This means less water stays in the filtrate and the pee becomes an ext concentratedWhen the individual is suitably rehydrated, ADH levels will decrease and also less water will certainly be reabsorbed indigenous the collecting ducts

Osmoregulation in the Medulla




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11.3.8 describe the difference in the concentration of proteins, glucose and urea in between blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and also urine

Proteins:

Proteins will be present in blood plasma, but not present in glomerular filtrate or urineThis is because proteins can not pass across the basement membrane throughout ultrafiltration and thus cannot type part that the filtrate

Glucose:

Glucose will be present in blood plasma and glomerular filtrate, yet not existing in urine (normally)This is since the glucose is selectively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubuleIt is reabsorbed from the filtrate right into the blood by energetic transport (symport v Na+ ions)

Urea:

Urea will be existing in blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and also urineOnly about 50% of urea is reabsorbed (some urea is reabsorbed to aid regulate the medullary osmolarity gradient)Because water is reabsorbed from the filtrate (by osmosis, due to the hypertonicity the the medulla), urea becomes an ext concentrated in urineThe concentration that urea in the urine will depend on the quantity of water in the urine

11.3.9 define the visibility of glucose in the urine of untreated diabetic patients

The urine of non-diabetic patients have to contain no glucose together it is selectively reabsorbed from the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubuleDiabetics have greater levels the blood glucose because of either a lack of insulin cheap (type I) or insensitivity to insulin secretions (type II)Because that this, not every one of the glucose in diabetics is reabsorbed into the blood (protein pumps in tubule wall become saturated)This results in the presence of glucose in the urine of untreated diabetics, which deserve to be detected using test strips