Diplomacy of the French Cession
The catalyst to cede the French swarm of Louisiana come the Spanish was the long, expensive conflict of the French and also Indian War, likewise known as the 7 Year"s War, between France and great Britain. Initially, France available Louisiana to Spain in stimulate to lug Spain into the conflict on the French side. Spain declined. Spanish officials to be uncertain about what exactly constituted the vague and immense swarm of Louisiana. When the "Family Compact," a supposedly secret alliance between France and Spain, ended up being known come the British, they attacked Spain. In November 1762 in the an enig Treaty the Fontainebleau, France handed end Louisiana and also the Isle of olions to Spain in order to "sweeten the bitter medication of Spanish defeat and to persuade them no to hit on" against the British. 6
The cession of Louisiana was kept secret for over a year. France fear thatLouisiana would come to be British. As a result, France sought to preempt anyactions that Britain would undertake if it ended up being known the Louisiana nolonger appreciated French protection prior to the Spanish to be able to accounting anddefend it. Great Britain official conceded Spanish ownership of Louisiana inFebruary 1763 in one of the collection of treaties ending the French and IndianWar. This gesture was a just formality, for the territory had remained in Spanishhands for almost three months.
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Spanish Rule and a RevoltDon Tomás López de Vargas Machuca, La Luisiana cedida al Rei N. S. Por S. M. Christianisima, con la Nueva Orleans, è isla en que se halla esta ciudad. Construida sobre el mapa de Mr. D"Anville. Por D. Thomás Lopez, 1762. Geography and also Map Division, Library of Congress. Call number: G4010 1762 .L6 low 467
Spain was sluggish to take actual possession of its newly obtained colony. Ingeneral, French homesteaders reacted negative to the idea the Spanish rule. Spainwas also loathe to spend enough funds for either an efficient militarypresence or adequate maintenance that the colony. To do matters worse, the newcolonial governor, Don Antonio de Ulloa, did no arrive in Louisiana untilMarch 1766.
Spanish dominion in Louisiana essential to accommodate an ethnically diversepopulation. There were huge numbers of different Native American tribes, asmall however influential european populace that was primarily French, and a smallbut far-reaching number of Africans, both slave and free. Plenty of of thecolony"s officials were either French or the French ancestry, whichcontributed come the tenuous nature of Spanish management of the colony. Spanishofficials, mindful of their own numerical insignificance and also of the diversity ofpeoples, verified some versatility in procedures by maintaining the Frenchlanguage and customs.Charles III, King the Spain, actual Decreto, que Previene las Reglas, y Condiciones con que se Puede Hacer el Comercio Desde España a la Provincia de la Luisiana . . ., Madrid, 1768. Rare Book and also Special collection Division, Library of Congress. Call number: F373 .S73
Ulloa landing at brand-new Orleans through a little detachment the troops in march 1766.He delayed formal deliver of power for much more than a year, by which timeadministrative and also financial chaos ensued. In an attempt to remedy the damageand collection the swarm exclusively in ~ the commercial sphere of Spain, Ulloaturned come various financial expedients which only worsened the situation. Healso promulgated a collection of unpopular ordinances.
Although Louisiana was granted an ext extensive privileges than were accordedother Spanish colonies, limitations were inserted on trade. Louisiana"strade was minimal to ripe ports in Spain and also the i of any type of ship the didnot own a captain and also a crew that were two-thirds Spanish to be prohibited.Trade with great Britain and also Mexico was outlawed and the importation of Frenchwine right into the swarm was banned.
In the indigenous of one historian, Ulloa had actually inaugurated the uprising that swept him native office because he had issued assignment "that threatened the present customs and also economic understand of the colony however was refuse the money and also military manpower necessary to offer his government credibility." 7. Facing a huge wave that dissent, particularly from the leading French citizen of new Orleans that acted under the auspices the the remarkable Council, Louisiana"s regional governing body, Ulloa was driven from the nest by an open revolt in October 1768.
Louisiana citizens loyal to the French Crown hosted a convention in NewOrleans top top October 29, 1768, come air your grievances against Spanish authority.They formally petitioned the premium Council to reinstate the colony"sformer status and also force Ulloa"s departure. The exceptional Council approve adecree ordering the expulsion the the Spanish governor and drafted a memorandumto current to the French minister of international affairs petitioning because that therestoration the French rule, all to no avail. Spain, unwilling to countenancesuch a revolt, responded through force.general Alexandre O"Reilly, head-and-shoulders portrait, encountering left, n.d. Engraving after an undated miniature. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-41388
The crown discharged a fleet of 24 ships and 2,000 troops under the commandof general Alexandre O"Reilly, who took possession that Louisiana on August18, 1769. O"Reilly quickly arrested, tried, and convicted the leaders ofthe rebellion that treason, executing 12 men, sentencing others to prolonged prisonterms, and confiscating the properties of all.
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O"Reilly also established a collection of reforms designed to reassertSpanish authority. In December 1769 he abolished the superior Council andreplaced it with the Cabildo. The Cabildo was a kind of municipal governmentcommon throughout Spanish America a city the supervisory board of 10members presided over by a governor.
6. Paul E. Hoffman, A background of Louisiana prior to 1813 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State university Bookstore, 1996), 90. (Return to text)