Common name: A nomenclature system valuable for naming straightforward organic molecules. It often falls short for more complex molecules, in which instance systematic or (better yet) IUPAC nomenclature is preferable.
The prefix "n-" (or normal) is used when all carbons type a continuous, unbranched (linear) chain. If a functional group (such as an alcohol) is existing that functional team is on the finish of the chain. Not to be puzzled with "nor", which indicates a lacking methyl group.

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Common name: n-pentane IUPAC name: pentane Common name: n-pentanol IUPAC name: 1-pentanol
The prefix "iso
" is supplied when all carbons except one type a continuous chain. This one carbon is component of one isopropyl group at the end of the chain.
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Common name: isopentane IUPAC name: 2-methylbutane Common name: isopentyl alcohol IUPAC name: 3-methyl-1-butanol
"Iso" can also indicate the the molecule is an constitution isomer of one more molecule v a typical (or trivial) name.
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Common name: phthalic mountain IUPAC name: benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid Common name: isophthalic mountain IUPAC name: benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
The prefix "neo
" is used when all however two carbons kind a continuous chain, and also these 2 carbons are component of a terminal tert-butyl group.

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Common name: neopentane IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethylpropane Common name: neopentyl alcohol IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol

The prefix "sec
" or "s" is used when the functional group is external inspection to a secondary carbon. This prefix is only advantageous for a four-carbon chain. That is not applicable through a shorter chain, and it is often ambiguous when the chain has 5 or an ext carbons.