1) about twenty-five the the ninety-two natural aspects are known to be vital to life. Which 4 of this twenty-five facets make up about 96 percent of living matter?

A) carbon, sodium, hydrogen, nitrogen

B) carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, hydrogen

C) oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, nitrogen

D) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

2) Trace facets are those forced by an biology in only minute quantities. Which of the adhering to is a trace facet that is compelled by humans and other vertebrates, yet not by other organisms such as bacteria or plants?

A) calcium

B) iodine

C) sodium

D) phosphorus

3) which of the following statements is FALSE?

A) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the many abundant aspects of life matter.

You are watching: Magnesium has an atomic number of 12. what is the most stable charge for a magnesium ion?

B) some naturally occurring elements space toxic to organisms.

C) every life calls for the same vital elements.

D) steel is essential by all humans.

4) i beg your pardon of the complying with are compounds?

A) H2O, O2, and CH4 B) H2O and O2 C) O2and CH4 D) H2O and CH4, however not O2

5) knowing the atomic mass of an element enables inferences around which the the following?

A) the number of electrons in the element

B) the variety of protons in the element

C) the number of protons plus neutrons in the element

D) the variety of protons plus electron in the element

6) In what way are elements in the same obelisk of the periodic table the same? They have the same number of _____.

A) protons

B) electrons as soon as neutral

C) electron in your valence shells when neutral

D) electron shells when neutral

7) Molybdenum has actually an atomic number of 42. Several usual isotopes exist, with mass number from 92-100. Therefore, i beg your pardon of the adhering to can be true?

A) Molybdenum atoms deserve to have in between 50 and 58 neutrons.

B) Molybdenum atoms deserve to have between 50 and 58 protons.

C) Molybdenum atoms have the right to have in between 50 and 58 electrons.

D) isotopes of molybdenum have various numbers the electrons.

8) Carbon-12 is the most typical isotope the carbon and has a mass variety of 12. However, the mean atomic fixed of carbon discovered on a regular table is slightly an ext than 12 daltons. Why?

A) The atom mass does not include the mass of electrons.

B) part carbon atoms in nature have actually an extra proton.

C) some carbon atom in nature have an ext neutrons.

D) part carbon atoms in nature have a various valence electron distribution.

9) i beg your pardon of the following finest describes the relationship between the atoms explained below?

Atom 1 atom 2

1 1 H 3 1H

A) They room isomers.

B) They space isotopes.

C) they contain 1 and also 3 protons, respectively.

D) They each contain only 1 neutron.

10) The atomic variety of nitrogen is 7. Nitrogen-15 has a better mass number 보다 nitrogen-14 due to the fact that the atom nucleus of nitrogen-15 has _____.

A) 7 neutrons

B) 8 neutrons

C) 8 protons

D) 15 protons

11) indigenous its atomic number of 15, that is feasible to predict the the phosphorus atom has _____.

A) 5 neutrons, 5 protons, and 5 electrons

B) 15 neutrons and also 15 protons

C) 8 electrons in the outermost electron shell

D) 15 protons and 15 electrons

12) Fluorine has an atomic variety of 9. Which of the following would you execute to a neutral fluorine atom to complete its valence shell?

A) add 1 electron

B) add 2 electrons

C) eliminate 1 electron

D) Nothing. If fluorine is neutral, it has a finish valance shell.

13) Magnesium has an atomic variety of 12. What is the most stable fee for a magnesium ion?

A) a +1 charge

B) a +2 charge

C) a -1 charge

D) a -2 charge


14) refer to the figure over (first 3 rows of the regular table). What element has properties most similar to carbon?

A) boron

B) silicon

C) nitrogen

D) phosphorus


15) How countless neutrons are present in the cell core of a phosphorus-32 (32P) atom (see the figure above)?

A) 15 B) 16 C) 17 D) 32

16) How plenty of electrons will a single atom the sulfur v no charge and no bonds have in that is valence shell (see the number above)?

A) 6

B) 8

C) 16

D) 32

17) based on electron configuration, i beg your pardon of the elements in the figure above would exhibit a chemical habits most favor that that oxygen?

A) carbon

B) nitrogen

C) sulfur

D) phosphorus


18) Which among the atoms shown would be most likely to kind a cation v a fee of +1?






19) Which one of the atoms shown would it is in most most likely to form a cation v a fee of -1?





20) Oxygen has actually an atomic number of 8 and also most commonly, a mass number of 16. Thus, what is the atomic mass of one oxygen atom?

A) about 8 grams

B) around 8 daltons

C) approximately 16 grams

D) approximately 16 daltons

21) If you readjust the variety of neutrons in one atom, you develop _____.

A) a cation

B) one anion

C) one isotope

D) a various element

22) have the right to the atomic mass the an element vary?

A) No, that is fixed. If it transforms at every then friend have developed a different element.

B) Yes. Including or shedding electrons will substantially change the atom mass.

C) Yes. Adding or losing protons will change the atom mass without creating a various element.

D) Yes. Including or shedding neutrons will adjust the atom mass without developing a various element.

23) i beg your pardon of the complying with is the ideal description of one atom"s physics structure?

A) an atom is a solid fixed of material.

B) The particles that form an atom room equidistant from every other.

C) atom are small bubbles of space with mass focused at the center of the bubble.

D) atom are little bubbles of space with mass focused on the external surface that the bubble.

24) A salamander depends on hydrogen bonding to stick to assorted surfaces. Therefore, a salamander would have the greatest an obstacle clinging to a _____.

A) slightly wet surface

B) surface of hydrocarbons

C) surface of largely carbon-oxygen bonds

D) surface ar of mostly carbon-nitrogen bonds

25) A covalent chemistry bond is one in i m sorry _____.

A) electrons are removed from one atom and also transferred to an additional atom so the the two atoms end up being oppositely charged

B) protons and also neutrons are mutual by 2 atoms so regarding satisfy the needs of both atoms

C) outer-shell electron of 2 atoms are shared so regarding satisfactorily fill their respective orbitals

D) outer-shell electron of one atom space transferred to to fill the within electron covering of another atom

26) What is the maximum number of covalent bonds the an oxygen atom through atomic number 8 can make with hydrogen?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 4

D) 6

27) Nitrogen (N) is more electronegative than hydrogen (H). I beg your pardon of the complying with is a correct statement about the atom in ammonia (NH3)?

A) each hydrogen atom has actually a partial hopeful charge; the nitrogen atom has actually a partial an unfavorable charge.

B) Ammonia has actually an all at once positive charge.

C) Ammonia has an overall an adverse charge.

D) The nitrogen atom has a partial positive charge; each hydrogen atom has a partial an unfavorable charge.

28) Bonds between two atoms that space equally electronegative are _____.

A) hydrogen bonds

B) polar covalent bonds

C) nonpolar covalent bonds

D) ionic bonds

29) What results from one unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?

A) a nonpolar covalent bond

B) a polar covalent bond

C) an ionic bond

D) a hydrophobic interaction

30) A covalent shortcut is likely to be polar once _____.

A) one of the atom sharing electrons is more electronegative 보다 the various other atom

B) the 2 atoms share electrons room equally electronegative

C) carbon is among the two atoms sharing electrons

D) the 2 atoms share electrons space the very same elements

31) What is the difference in between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

A) Covalent bond involve the share of pairs of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of solitary electrons between atoms.

B) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic binding involve the electric attraction in between charged atoms.

C) Covalent binding involve the sharing of electrons in between atoms; ionic bonds involve the share of protons between charged atoms.

D) Covalent bond involve the transport of electrons between charged atoms; ionic bond involve the share of electrons in between atoms.



32) The atomic variety of chlorine is 17. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. What is the formula for magnesium chloride?

A) MgCl

B) MgCl2

C) Mg2Cl

D) MgCl3



33) How many electron pairs room shared in between carbon atoms in a molecule that has actually the formula C2H4?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4



34) Which shortcut or interaction would be difficult to disrupt as soon as compounds room put right into water?

A) covalent bonds in between carbon atoms

B) hydrogen bonds

C) ionic bonds

D) ionic and also hydrogen bonds



35) Water molecules room attracted to one an additional by _____.

A) nonpolar covalent bonds

B) ionic bonds

C) hydrogen bonds

D) hydrophobic interactions



36) van der Waals interactions may result when _____.

A) electrons space not symmetrically spread in a molecule

B) molecules organized by ionic bonds react with water

C) 2 polar covalent bonds react

D) a hydrogen atom loses an electron



37) What is the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that can be covalently external inspection in a molecule containing two carbon atoms?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8



38) What outcomes from the chemistry reaction portrayed above? The reactants have actually no charge.

A) a cation through a net charge of +1 and also an anion with a net fee of +1

B) a cation v a net fee of -1 and also an anion v a net charge of -1

C) a cation with a net fee of -1 and also an anion through a net charge of +1

D) a cation through a net fee of +1 and also an anion through a net charge of -1



39) What is the atomic variety of the cation created in the reaction shown above?

A) 8

B) 10

C) 11

D) 16



40) What reasons the shape of the molecule presented above?

A) the shape of the 2 p orbitals in the carbon atom

B) the form of the 1 s orbital in the carbon atom

C) the shape of the sp3hybrid orbitals the the electron shared in between the carbon and hydrogen atoms

D) hydrogen bonding configurations in between the carbon and hydrogen atoms



41) How plenty of electrons are connected in a single covalent bond?

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four



42) How countless electrons are affiliated in a dual covalent bond?

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four



43) If one atom has a fee of +1, which of the complying with must it is in true?

A) It has actually two more protons than neutrons.

B) It has actually the same variety of protons as electrons.

C) It has one an ext electron 보다 it go protons.

D) It has one more proton than it walk electrons.



44) elements found ~ above the left side of the routine table contain outer shells that are _____; these aspects tend to type _____ in solution.

A) practically empty; cations

B) virtually empty; anions

C) virtually full; cations

D) almost full; anions



45) one atom has 4 electrons in its valence shell. What types of covalent bonds is it qualified of forming?

A) single, double, or triple

B) solitary and twin only

C) solitary bonds only

D) double bonds only



46) when are atoms most stable?

A) as soon as they have the fewest feasible valence electrons

B) once they have the maximum variety of unpaired electrons

C) when every one of the electron orbitals in the valence covering are filled

D) as soon as all electrons space paired



47) when the atoms associated in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, what type of link results?

A) an ionic bond

B) a hydrogen bond

C) a nonpolar covalent bond

D) a polar covalent bond



48) Nitrogen (N) normally creates three covalent bonds with a valence the 5. However, ammonium has four covalent bonds, every to a different hydrogen (H) atom (H has actually a valence of 1). What perform you guess to it is in the fee on ammonium?

A) +1

B) -1

C) +2

D) -2



49) You should write under information about a molecule, however need to indicate only the kind and number of atoms the contains. Which depiction would work-related best?

A) molecule formula

B) structural formula

C) ball-and-stick model

D) space-filling model



50) You must represent a molecule to best illustrate the loved one sizes of the atoms involved and their interrelationships. Which representation would work-related best?

A) molecular formula

B) structure formula

C) ball-and-stick model

D) space-filling model



51) which of the complying with is true for this reaction?

3 H₂ + N₂ ↔ 2 NH₃

A) The reaction is nonreversible

B)Hydrogen and nitrogen are the reaction of the turning back reaction.

C) Ammonia is gift formed and also decomposed simultaneously.

D) just the forward or reverse reactions can happen at one time.



52) i beg your pardon of the adhering to correctly defines all chemical equilibrium?

A) Forward and also reverse reactions proceed with no net impact on the concentrations of the reactants and also products.

B) concentrations of assets are greater than the concentration of the reactants.

C) There room equal concentration of products and also reactants if forward and also reverse reactions continue.

D) There are equal concentrations of reactants and also products, and also the reactions have actually stopped



53) which of the following correctly defines a reaction that has reached chemistry equilibrium?

A) The rate of the forward reaction is same to the rate of the turning back reaction.

B) every one of the reactants have been convert to the products of the reaction.

C) every one of the commodities have been converted to the reactants of the reaction.

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D) Both the forward and the turning back reactions have actually stopped, with no net result on the concentration of the reactants and the products.