A carrot has a diploid number of 18. What is it's haploid number?
AB
9
Gametes are produced by the process of ___.

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meiosis
Another word for sex cell is ___.gamete
During which stage of meiosis do chromosomes form tetrads?prophase I
During which stage of meiosis do sister chromatids separate from each other?anaphase II
What is the diploid number of chromosomes in humans?46 (also written as 2n=46)
What is the haploid number for humans?23 (also written as n=23)
_________ chromosomes are chromosomes that have the same types of genes, but are not identical.Homologous
_________ are chromosomes that have the same types of genes, and are identical.Sister chromatids
A(n) _____ is a segment of DNA that has the instructions for making one protein.gene
A chromosome is made of ___ DNA molecule(s)one
When two homologous chromosomes are lined up right next to each other during meiosis, they are referred to as a(n) ___.tetrad
When homologous chromosomes are lined up next to each other during meiosis, they might swap pieces of DNA. This phenomenon is called ___.crossing over
When chromosomes are lined up like this during meiosis, what are they referred to as?, A tetrad,
Which process from meiosis is shown below and during which stage would it occur?, The picture shows "crossing over" and it usually happens during prophase I.,
When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, the offspring were ___.all tall
If the offspring from a true-breeding tall plant and a true-breeding short plant are allowed to self-pollinate, they will produce offspring in the F2 generation that are ___.about 75% tall and 25% short (Remember, it asked about the F2 generation. The true-breeding parents would be the P generation. Their offspring who were allowed to self-pollinate were the F1 generation. The offspring that resulted from the self-pollination were the F2 generation)
Plants with the ___ form of a trait are always true-breeding.recessive
Plants with the ____ form of a trait can be true-breeding while other plants with that trait might not be true-breeding.dominant
When alleles ___ from each other, they separate.segregate
Different forms of the same gene are called _____.alleles
The types of alleles that an organism inherits is known as the ______.genotype (example = Bb)
The physical expression of two alleles is known as the organism's _____.phenotype
If B = brown eyes and b = blue eyes, what will be the color of your eyes if your genotype is BB?Brown eyes
If B = brown eyes and b = blue eyes, what will be the color of your eyes if your genotype is Bb?Brown eyes (remember that B is dominant)
If B = brown eyes and b = blue eyes, what will be the color of your eyes if your genotype is bb?blue eyes
If B = brown eyes and b = blue eyes, what would the organism's genotype be if the organism was heterozygous?Bb (remember that 'hetero' means 'mixed')
If B = brown eyes and b = blue eyes, what would the organism's genotype be if the organism is homozygous dominant?BB (remember that 'homo' means 'same')
If B = brown eyes and b = blue eyes, what would the organism's genotype be if the organism is homozygous recessive?bb (remember that 'homo' means 'same')
Another word for heterozygous is ____.hybrid
Another word for homozygous is ____.purebred
Another word for purebred is ____.homozygous,
Another word for hybrid is ____.heterozygous,
The process of making proteins inside cells is called ______.protein synthesis
Inside which organelle is DNA located?nucleus (Remember, prokaryotes don't have a nucleus, so their DNA is located out in the cytosol/cytoplasm)
On which organelle are proteins made?ribosomes (This is true of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotic ribosomes are a little bit smaller, but otherwise very similar to the eukaryotic ribosome),
The process of making a strand of m-RNA in the nucleus is called _____.transcription
Which nucleotide do you find in RNA but not DNA?, uracil
Uracil bonds to _____ at the nitrogenous base.adenine
The process of using the code on RNA to make a long chain of amino acids in the correct order to form a protein is called _____.translation
Which type of molecule brings amino acids to the site of protein synthesis?transfer RNA (t-RNA)
Which molecule attaches to a ribosome and serves as a code for putting amino acids together?messenger RNA (m-RNA)
How many nucleotides are needed to code for 1 amino acid?, 3
How many different types of amino acids are used to make proteins?20
Each set of 3 nucleotides on a strand of m-RNA is called a(n) _____., codon
How many nucleotides are found at the bottom of a molecule of t-RNA and are involved with bonding to m-RNA?3 (The part labeled B in the diagram below),
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How many amino acids are found attached to a molecule of t-RNA?1,
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A change in the sequence of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA is called a(n) ____., mutation
Mutations that are harmful are usually weeded out by ______.natural selection
Mutations in a gene that are helpful usually become part of the gene pool as a new ____.allele (a different form of a gene)
Which enzyme is required for transcription?RNA Polymerase (remember, you are making RNA during transcription)
Genes contain instructions for assembling ___.proteins
Proteins are made out of ____.amino acids
The picture below is called the ____., genetic code (All organisms, from prokaryotic bacteria all the way up to humans, use this same genetic code),
What is the name of the organelle that can modify proteins after they have been made in the rough ER?golgi
A mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides is called a(n) ____ mutationpoint
A type of point mutation that causes a change in every amino acid following the mutation is called a(n) ____ mutation.frameshift
A point mutation will cause the cell to make an incomplete protein if the mutation results in an early ____ codon.stop
A picture of all 46 chromosomes paired in homologous pairs is called a(n) _____.karyotype,
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The failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis is called ___ .nondisjunction,
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The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal deletion,
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal duplication,
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal inversion,
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal translocation,
A picture like the one below is called a(n) ____., karyotype,
What would be the sex of the person who owns these chromosomes?, male (notice the X and the Y chromosome at the last pair),
A point mutation that changes a nucleotide in a codon, but doesn't change the resulting amino acid is called a ____ mutation.Silent mutation (Silent mutations are almost always caused by a base-pair substitution that causes the 3rd nucleotide in a codon to change. As you can see in the genetic code chart below, changing the third base often times does not change the amino acid that is called for.),
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A point mutation that ends up causing a stop codon to be read earlier than normal so that the resulting protein is smaller than it should be is called a(n) ____ mutation.Nonsense mutation (because the protein will be non-functional and its structure will make no sense)
The type of inheritance where neither allele is dominant and they tend to produce a mix of the two traits such as blue + white = light blue would be _____.incomplete dominance
The type of inheritance where both alleles are dominant, such as red fur + white fur = red and white fur hairs in roan cattle is known as ____.codominance
The type of inheritance where there is more than two alleles for a single trait, such as A, B, and O alleles for blood type, is known as ____.multiple alleles
Genes that are located on the 23rd pair of chromosomes (but only on the X, not the Y chromosome) are known as ____ genes.sex-linked
If you have an X and a Y chromosome, what is your gender?male
If you have two X chromosomes, what is your gender?female
A trait, like human skin color, that involves several different genes is called a(n) _____ trait.polygenic trait (remember, "poly" means many and "genic" refers to genes)
The following diagram is an example of a(n) ___., pedigree,
Different forms of the same gene are called _____.alleles
A dihybrid cross between 2 individuals that are heterozygous for two independently assorting characterisitics (such as seed color and seed shape), produces the classic ________ ratio.9:3:3:1 ratio,
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The monomers of DNA are ____.nucleotides,
How many different types of nucleotides are found in a molecule of DNA?, four
In DNA, which nucleotide always bonds to adenine (A) across the middle where the nitrogenous bases meet?thymine (T)
How many chromosomes do human sex cells have?23 total (1 of each type)
A segment of DNA that holds the code for a particular protein or trait is called a ____.

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gene
The process of making a copy of a strand of DNA is called ___.DNA replication
Which enzyme adds nucleotides to the sides of the unzipped DNA molecule during DNA replication?DNA polymerase
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