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You are watching: Cervical enlargement of the spinal cord

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al., editors. Neuroscience. Second edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001.


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The spinal cord extend caudally native the brainstem, running from themedullary-spinal junction at about the level that the very first cervical vertebra come aboutthe level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (see number 1.10). The vertebral column (and the spinal cord within it) isdivided right into cervical, thoracic, lumbar,sacral, and also coccygeal regions. The peripheral nerves(called the spinal or segmental nerves) the innervate lot of the bodyarise from the spinal cord"s 31 segmental pairs. The cervical an ar of the cordgives climb to eight cervical nerves (C1—C8), the thoracic come twelvethoracic nerves (T1—T12), the lumbar to five lumbar nerves(L1—L5), the sacral to five sacral nerves (S1—S5), and also thecoccygeal to one coccygeal nerve. The segmental spinal nerves leaving the vertebralcolumn v the intervertebral foramina the lie adjacent to the respectivelynumbered vertebral body. Sensory information lugged by the afferent axons that thespinal nerves beginning the cord via the dorsal roots, and also motor commands lugged bythe efferent axons leaving the cord via the ventral root (see number 1.10C). Once the dorsal and ventral root join, sensoryand motor axons (with some exceptions) travel with each other in the segmental spinalnerves.

Two regions of the spinal cord room enlarged come accommodate the higher number ofnerve cells and connections required to procedure information pertained to the top andlower four (see number 1.10B). The spinalcord expansion that synchronizes to the arms is called the cervicalenlargement and also includes spinal segment C5—T1; the expansionthat corresponds to the legs is dubbed the lumbar enlargement andincludes spinal segment L2—S3. Since the spinal cord is considerablyshorter 보다 the vertebral column (see Figure1.10A), lumbar and also sacral nerves operation for part distance in the vertebralcanal before emerging, thus creating a collection of nerve roots well-known as the cauda equina. This region is the target for an important clinical procedure dubbed a“lumbar puncture” that enables for the arsenal ofcerebrospinal liquid by place a needle into the room surrounding this nerves towithdraw fluid for analysis. In addition, regional anesthetics can be safely introducedto develop spinal anesthesia; at this level, the danger of damage to the spinal cordfrom a poorly placed needle is minimized.

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By commitment with the publisher, this book is available by the search feature, yet cannot it is in browsed.